Series: Cardiovascular outcome trials for diabetes drugs Empagliflozin and EMPA-REG OUTCOME


  • Miles Fisher Glasgow Royal Infirmary



diabetes, cardiovascular outcome trial, empagliflozin


EMPA-REG OUTCOME was an FDA-mandated cardiovascular outcome trial with empagliflozin and was the first completed trial with a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. EMPA-REG OUTCOME compared empagliflozin and placebo in 7,020 subjects with type 2 diabetes and established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The results were astounding as EMPA-REG OUTCOME demonstrated superiority for major cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke) and cardiovascular deaths were significantly reduced, as was all-cause mortality. Hospitalisation for heart failure, which was a secondary outcome, was also significantly reduced. Later trials with SGLT2 inhibitors have demonstrated reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and hospitalisation for heart failure, and trials with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists have demonstrated reductions in MACE. Collectively, these trials could transform the management of people with type 2 diabetes.

Author Biography

Miles Fisher, Glasgow Royal Infirmary



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