Adherence to type 2 diabetes management

Nitisha Khunti, Nehal Khunti, Kamlesh Khunti

Abstract


Tight glycaemic control is essential, and good adherence is associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality and hospitalisation in people with T2D. A significant number of people with T2D do not take medication as prescribed and therefore have poor outcomes. The key factors for not achieving targets include therapeutic inertia and adherence. Reasons for poor adherence include perception of treatment, complexity of treatment and adverse effects. Poor adherence leads to inadequate glycaemic control, which increases the risk of diabetic complications and mortality. There is evidence to suggest that education and monitoring is important in medication adherence.


Keywords


type 2 diabetes, poor adherence, glycaemic targets, lifestyle changes, glucose-lowering drugs

Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


International Diabetes Federation. International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas. 9th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation. 2019. Available from: http://www.diabetesatlas.org.

NHS Digital. Prescribing for Diabetes in England: 2008/09–2018/19. 2019. Available from: https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/prescribing-for-diabetes/2008-09---2018-19.

Fonseca V. Defining and characterizing the progression of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32(2):S151–6. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-S301

NICE. Preventing type 2 diabetes: risk identification and interventions for individuals at high risk. NICE Public Health Guidance. 2012. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ph38/evidence

García-Pérez L, Alvarez M, Dilla T, Gil-Guillén V, Orozco-Beltrán D. Adherence to therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Ther 2013;4(2):175–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13300-013-0034-y

Khunti K, Seidu S, Kunutsor S, Davies M. Association between adherence to pharmacotherapy and outcomes in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2017;40(11):1588–96. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc16-1925

Cramer J. A Systematic review of adherence with medications for diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27(5):1218–24. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.5.1218

Khunti S, Davies M, Khunti K. Clinical inertia in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a focused literature review. Br J Diabetes Vasc Dis 2015;15(2):65–9. https://doi.org/10.15277/bjdvd.2015.019

Aronson J. Compliance, concordance, adherence. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007;63(4):383–4. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02893.x

Cramer J, Roy A, Burrell A, et al. Medication compliance and persistence: terminology and definitions. Value Health 2008;11(1):44–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2007.00213.x

Horne R, Weinman J, Barber N, Elliott R, Morgan M. Concordance, adherence and compliance in medicine taking. A Report for the National Co-ordinating Centre for NHS Service Delivery and Organisation R&D. London, 2005. Available from: http://www.netscc.ac.uk/hsdr/files/project/SDO_FR_08-1412-076_V01.pdf.

World Health Organization. Adherence to long-term therapies: evidence for action. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2003. Available at: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/s4883e/s4883e.pdf

Osterberg L, Blaschke T. Adherence to medication. N Engl J Med 2005; 353(5):487–97. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra050100

Davies M, D’Alessio D, Fradkin J. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care 2018;41(12):2669–701. https://doi.org/10.2337/dci18-0033

Praet S, van Loon L. Exercise therapy in type 2 diabetes. Acta Diabetol 2009;46(4):263–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00592-009-0129-0

Rozenfeld Y, Hunt J, Plauschinat C, Wong K. Oral antidiabetic medication adherence and glycemic control in managed care. Am J Manag Care 2008;14(2):71–5.

Karter A, Parker M, Moffet H, Ahmed A, Schmittdiel J, Selby J. New prescription medication gaps: a comprehensive measure of adherence to new prescriptions. Health Serv Res 2009;44(5 Pt 1):1640–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2009.00989.x

Guillausseau P. Influence of oral antidiabetic drugs compliance on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes. A survey in general practice. Diabetes Metab 2003;29(1):79–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1262-3636(07)70011-3

Ciechanowski P, Katon W, Russo J. Depression and diabetes: impact of depressive symptoms on adherence, function, and costs. Arch Intern Med 2000;160(21):3278–85. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.160.21.3278

Dezii C, Kawabata H, Tran M. Effects of once-daily and twice-daily dosing on adherence with prescribed glipizide oral therapy for type 2 diabetes. South Med J 2002;95(1):68–71.

Donnan P, MacDonald T, Morris A. Adherence to prescribed oral hypoglycaemic medication in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study. Diabet Med 2002;19(4):279–84.

Donnelly L, Morris A, Evans J. Adherence to insulin and its association with glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. QJM 2007;100(6):345–50. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcm031

Tiv M, Viel J, Mauny F, et al. Medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: the ENTRED study 2007, a French population-based study. PLoS One 2012;7(3):e32412. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032412

Davies M, Gagliardino J, Gray L, Khunti K, Mohan V, Hughes R. Real-world factors affecting adherence to insulin therapy in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Diabet Med 2013;30(5):512–24. https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.12128

American Diabetes Association. Pharmacologic approaches to glycaemic treatment: standards of medical care in diabetes–2018. Diabetes Care 2018;41(1):S73–85. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc18-S008

Russell-Jones D, Pouwer F, Khunti K. Identification of barriers to insulin therapy and approaches to overcoming them. Diabetes Obes Metab 2018;20(3):488–96. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.13132

Gadkari A, McHorney C. Medication nonfulfillment rates and reasons: narrative systematic review. Curr Med Res Opin 2010;26(3):683–705. https://doi.org/10.1185/03007990903550586

Farmer A, Kinmonth A, Sutton S. Measuring beliefs about taking hypoglycaemic medication among people with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2006;23(3):265–70.

Karter A, Subramanian U, Saha C, et al. Barriers to insulin initiation: the translating research into action for diabetes insulin starts project. Diabetes Care 2010;33(4):733–5. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-1184

Larkin M, Capasso V, Chen C, et al. Measuring psychological insulin resistance: barriers to insulin use. Diabetes Educ 2008;34(3):511–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145721708317869

Brundisini F, Vanstone M, Hulan D, DeJean D, Giacomini M. Type 2 diabetes patients’ and providers’ differing perspectives on medication nonadherence: a qualitative meta-synthesis. BMC Health Serv Res 2015; 15(1):516. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-015-1174-8

Claxton A, Cramer J, Pierce C. A systematic review of the associations between dose regimens and medication compliance. Clin Ther 2001; 23(8):1296–310. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0149-2918(01)80109-0

Pollack M, Purayidathil F, Bolge S, Williams S. Patient-reported tolerability issues with oral antidiabetic agents: associations with adherence; treatment satisfaction and health-related quality of life. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010;87(2):204–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2009.11.023

Hauber A, Mohamed A, Johnson F, Falvey H. Treatment preferences and medication adherence of people with type 2 diabetes using oral glucose-lowering agents. Diabet Med 2009;26(4):416–24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02696.x

Walz L, Pettersson B, Rosenqvist U, Deleskog A, Journath G, Wändell P. Impact of symptomatic hypoglycemia on medication adherence, patient satisfaction with treatment, and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patient Prefer Adherence 2014;8:593–601. https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S58781

Bron M, Marynchenko M, Yang H, Yu A, Wu E. Hypoglycemia, treatment discontinuation, and costs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on oral antidiabetic drugs. Postgrad Med 2012;124(1):124–32. https://doi.org/10.3810/pgm.2012.01.2525

McGovern A, Tippu Z, Hinton W, Munro N, Whyte M, de Lusignan S. Comparison of medication adherence and persistence in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab 2018;20(4):1040–3. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.13160

McGovern A, Hinton W, Calderara S, Munro N, Whyte M, de Lusignan S. A class comparison of medication persistence in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective observational study. Diabetes Ther 2018;9(1):229–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13300-017-0361-5

Ho P, Rumsfeld J, Masoudi F, et al. Effect of medication nonadherence on hospitalization and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2006;166(17):1836–41.

Curtis S, Boye K, Lage M, Garcia-Perez L. Medication adherence and improved outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Manag Care 2017;23(7):e208–e214.

Wu Y, Yao X, Vespasiani G, et al. Mobile app-based interventions to support diabetes self-management: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to identify functions associated with glycemic efficacy. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2017;5(3):e35. https://doi.org/10.2196/mhealth.6522

Zafar A, Stone MA, Davies M, Khunti K. Acknowledging and allocating responsibility for clinical inertia in the management of type 2 diabetes in primary care: a qualitative study. Diabet Med 2015;32(3):407–13. https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.12592

Omran D, Guirguis L, Simpson S. Systematic review of pharmacist interventions to improve adherence to oral antidiabetic medications in people with type 2 diabetes. Can J Diabetes 2012;36(5):292–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2012.07.002

Schoenthaler A, Cuffee Y. A systematic review of interventions to. improve adherence to diabetes medications within the patient- practitioner interaction. J Clin Outcomes Manage 2013;20(11):494–506. http://www.mdlinx.com/hospital-administration/news-article.cfm/4949321/

Williams J, Walker R, Smalls B, Campbell J, Egede L. Effective interventions to improve medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Manag 2014;4(1):29–48. https://doi.org/10.2217/dmt.13.62

Sapkota S, Brien JA, Greenfield J, Aslani P. A systematic review of interventions addressing adherence to anti-diabetic medications in patients with type 2 diabetes – impact on adherence. PLoS One 2015;10(2): e0118296. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118296

Farmer A, Mcsharry J, Rowbotham S, McGowan L, Ricci- Cabello I, French D. Effects of interventions promoting monitoring of medication use and brief messaging on medication adherence for people with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of randomized trials. Diabet Med 2016;33(5):565–79. https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.12987

van Eikenhorst L, Taxis K, van Dijk L, de Gier H. Pharmacist-led self-management interventions to improve diabetes outcomes. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Front Pharmacol 2017;8:891. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00891

Jeong S, Lee M, Ji E. Effect of pharmaceutical care interventions on glycemic control in patients with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ther Clin Risk Manage 2018;14:1813–29. https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S169748

Kebede M, Zeeb H, Peters M, Heise T, Pischke C. Effectiveness of digital interventions for improving glycemic control in persons with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression analysis. Diabetes Technol Ther 2018;20(11):767–82. https://doi.org/10.1089/dia.2018.0216




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15277/bjd.2019.223

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


The Journal of the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists