Diabetes medications with cardiovascular protection – what now after LEADER®? Could metformin, pioglitazone, empagliflozin and liraglutide complement each other to save lives?


  • Robert EJ Ryder City Hospital, Birmingham, UK
  • Ralph A DeFronzo University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA




Ryder REJ, DeFronzo RA. Diabetes medications with cardiovascular protection in the wake of EMPA-REG OUTCOME™: the optimal combination may be metformin, pioglitazone and empagliflozin. Br J Diabetes Vasc Dis 2015;15:151–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.15277/bjdvd.2015.045

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Abdul-Ghani MA, Del Prato S, Chilton R, DeFronzo RA. SGLT2 inhibitors and cardiovascular risk: lessons learned from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study. Diabetes Care 2016;39:717–25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27208375. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc16-0041

Ferrannini E, Mark M, Mayoux E. CV Protection in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial: a “thrifty substrate” hypothesis. Diabetes Care 2016;39:1108–14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27289126. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc16-0330







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