Insulin: a momentous transformation of diabetes care from the 1970s to the millennium


  • Ken Shaw University of Portsmouth



Insulin, longevity, diabetes care, glycemic control, 'designer' insulins, self blood glucose monitoring, diabetes education


Bliss M. The Discovery of Insulin. 1982, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Gill G, Hardy K. Insulin-dependent diabetes of over 50 years’ duration. Prac- tical Diabetes 1993; 10(2): 60-61.

Alexander W, Redmond S. The Alan Nabarro Medal: the what and the whence. Practical Diabetes 1993;10(2):63-65.

The Kroc Collaborative Study Group. Blood Glucose Control and the Evo- lution of Diabetic Retinopathy. NEJM 1984;311:365-72.

Dahl-J0rgenasenK, Brinchman-Hansen O, Hanssen KF, et al. Rapid tight- ening of blood glucose control leads to transient deterioration of retinopa- thy in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: the Oslo Study. Br Med J 1985; 290:81-5.

Pirart J. Diabetes mellitus and its degenerative complications: a prospective study of 4,400 patients observed between 1947 and 1993. Diabetes Care 1978;1:168–188 (1st part), 252–261 (2nd part). diacare.1.3.168

Didier J, Eschwege E, Guyot-Argenton C, et al. Effect of multiple daily injections on the course of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes 1976;25(5):463-9.

Keen, H, Pickup JC, Bilous RW, et al. Human insulin produced by recombi- nant DNA technology; safety and hypoglycaemic potency in healthy men. Lancet 1980;361:398-401.

Editorial (Pickup J). Human insulin. Brit Med J 1989;299:991.

Redmond S. Changing to human insulin. Balance 1988;106:66-67.

Heinemann L, Heise T, Wahl L Ch, et al. Prandial glycaemia after a carbohydrate-rich meal in type 1 diabetic patients: using the rapid acting insulin analogue [Lys(B28), Pro(B29)] human insulin. Diabetic Medicine 1996;13


Walford S, Gale EM, Allison SP, Tattersall RB. Self-monitoring of blood glucose. Lancet 1978;311(8067):732-5.

Sonksen PH, Judd SL, Lowy C. Home monitoring of blood glucose. Method for improving diabetic control. Lancet 1978;1(8067):729-32. https:/

Koenig RJ, Peterson CM, Jones RL, et al. Correlation of glucose regulation and Haemoglobin A1c in diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1976;295(8): 417-20.

Jackson JGL. The formation of the medical and scientific section of the British Diabetic Association. Diabetic Medicine 2004 19 July. https://doi/org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-91361199710

Shaw KM. Arnold Bloom’s legacy today: the art of medicine in an evidence- based world. Practical Diabetes 2011;28:400-03. 10.1002/pdi.1644

Shaw KM. Diabetes education study group: workshop experience. Diabetes Education. Ed Baksi, Hide DW, Giles G. 1984. Chapter 9: 79-83. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Diabetes Education. Ed Baksi, Hide D, Giles G. 1984 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Greenwood R, Shaw KM. The Silver Jubilee of the ABCD: the early history of the Association. Br J Diabetes 2022;22(1):54-7. 10.15277/bjd.2022.346

Shaw K, Greenwood R. John Wales -a tribute. Br J Diabetes 2017;17(4): 165-6.